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List of contents :

  • Different Kind of Drilling Bits
  • Casing
  • Tubing
  • Drilling Rigs
  • PDM (Positive Displacement Mud) Motors
  • MWD (Measuring While Drilling)
  • Packer
  • Liner Hanger
  • Logging Unit
  • Different kind of Valve
  • Chemical Substance
  • Coiled Tubing, Down Hole Tools
  • Coiled Tubing Reel
  • Nitrogen Pump & Tank
  • Cementing Equipment
  • Fracturing Equipment
  • Crane
  • Mud Pump
  • Wire Line & Slick Line Pressure Control Equipments
  • Slick Line Down Hole Tools
  • Wire Line Down Hole Tools
  • Wire Line Cable
  • Slick Line Wire


Different Kind of Drilling Bits


    • Three Cone Bits: The great majority of roller-cone bits today have three cones, with either milled steel teeth that are part of the cone itself or hard-metal (usually tungsten carbide) teeth inserted into the body of the steel cone. Milled-tooth bits are less expensive but are suited only for softer formations. Insert bits are used in medium to harder formations, with the size, shape, bearings, and number of inserts varied to fit the specific drilling conditions. The bits are available with either roller or journal bearings, depending on operating conditions, and the bearings, seals, and lubricants should all be specified to withstand high temperatures if the bits are to be used in geothermal drilling.

Three Cone Bits

    • PDC Bits: Polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC) cutters began to be widely used in the early 1980’s for their ability to drill faster and last longer in soft to medium formations, and they now dominate oil and gas drilling. Historically, PDC bits have not had acceptable life in hard or fractured formations, and great deal of work was done to extend their use to harder rocks. ROP with PDC bits has been similar to roller-cones in most wells but lifetime is much longer - in medium formations (with ROPs of 1.5 to 50 m/hr), roller cone bits used in high temperature aerated drilling may drill 250 – 350 m per bit whereas PDC bits have been rerun to drill 1000 m per bit with some bits exceeding 3000 m.Diamond impregnated bits are also used in full-size conventional drilling when a turbine is used to provide high rotary speed. Turbines are available that have no rotating elastomeric seals, so they can withstand high temperatures, but their high rotary speed is not compatible with rotary bits, so diamond impregnated bits are used. These bits are generally only used when nothing else will work—the rate of penetration is low, they are extremely expensive, and they cannot be repaired when worn.

PDC Bits

    • Bi-Center PDC Bits: It is ideal for drilling a larger diameter hole than the casing pass-through diameter allowed for standard bit sizes. The expanded hole size results in higher quality cementing and logging. It also allows for larger casing diameters to be utilized. This bit design consists of two sections: the Pilot and the Reamer. The pilot section drills the formation and reduces the formation tension for improved rate of penetration. This unique design feature incorporates dual gauge pads that stabilize the pilot bit allowing the reamer section to enlarge the hole to the maximum diameter possible. Bi-center bit with improved directional stability and wear resistance is disclosed, which bit optimally utilizing a plurality of shaped PDC cutting elements selectively situated about the cutting surfaces of the pilot and the reamer to produce a minimal force imbalance, where further the pilot bit and the reamer are force balanced to further reduce imbalance in the operation of the tool.

Bi-Center Bits


Casing is the major structural component of a well. Casing is needed to maintain borehole stability, prevent contamination of water sands, isolate water from producing formations, and control well pressures during drilling, production, and workover operations. Casing provides locations for the installation of blowout preventers, wellhead equipment, production packers,and production tubing. The cost of casing is a major part of the overall well cost, so selection of casing size, grade, connectors, and setting depth is a primary engineering and economic consideration.



Tubing is the conduit through which oil and gas are brought from the producing formations to the field surface facilities for processing. Tubing must be adequately strong to resist loads and deformations associated with production and workovers. Further, tubing must be sized to support the expected rates of production of oil and gas.Clearly, tubing that is too small restricts production and subsequent economic performance of the well. Tubing that is too large, however,may have an economic impact beyond the cost of the tubing string itself because the tubing size will influence the overall casing design of the well.

Drilling Rigs

Drilling rigs can be mobile equipment mounted on trucks, tracks or trailers, or more permanent land or marine-based structures (such as oil platforms, commonly called 'offshore oil rigs' even if they don't contain a drilling rig). The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex of equipment that is used to penetrate the surface of the Earth's crust

    • Offshore: This section gives more detailed technical description of today’s units, their advantages and disadvantages, capabilities, and operating characteristics. One may ask why there are so many types, sizes, and capabilities of offshore units. The answer involves different technical, economic, government, and safety requirements to accomplish a specific drilling program. No one type can satisfy all the requirements for every drilling location; thus,we have to understand all types to make a correct decision on their use. Jackups. The jackup-type MODU has become the premier bottom-founded drilling unit, displacing submersibles and most platform units. The primary advantage of the jackup design is that it offers a steady and relatively motion-free platform in the drilling position and mobilizes relatively quickly and easily. There are two basic types of jackups, the independent-leg type, usually three legs with lattice construction, and the mat type, in which the legs are attached to a very large mat that rests on the ocean bottom.


Drilling rigs can be mobile equipment mounted on trucks, tracks or trailers, or more permanent land or marine-based structures (such as oil platforms, commonly called 'offshore oil rigs' even if they don't contain a drilling rig). The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex of equipment that is used to penetrate the surface of the Earth's crust


    • Onshore : If a large-diameter hole is required, then a conventional rotary rig will probably be used and the basic choice to be made is whether it should be a top-drive. For many years, in “traditional” drill rigs, the drill string was turned by a “rotary table” in the rig floor.


PDM (Positive Displacement Mud) Motors

A downhole motor used in the oil field to drive the drill bit or other downhole tools during directional drilling or performance drilling applications. As drilling fluid is pumped through the positive displacement motor, it converts the hydraulic power of the fluid into mechanical power to cause the bit to rotate. During directional drilling, this capability is used while drilling in sliding mode, when the drillstring is not rotated from the surface. Positive displacement motors can also be used for performance drilling, straight hole drilling, coring, underreaming, and milling operations. In straight hole drilling, the motor functions as a drilling performance tool to increase the rate of penetration and reduce casing wear by minimizing drillstring rotation The most common deviation tools for directional drilling are steerable motor assemblies (or so-called positive-displacement motors [PDMs]) and RSSs. Adjustable gauge stabilizers, known as “2D rotary systems,” have become quite popular to run with the rotary and PDM assemblies to control inclination. Whipstocks, especially casing whipstocks, are used routinely to sidetrack out of cased wellbores. The power section should be matched to the bit and the formation being drilled for best performance.


MWD (Measuring While Drilling)

Survey systems can also be categorized by the methods used to transmit the data to the surface, such as wireline or measurement while drilling (MWD). Depending on the packaging of the electronic sensors, the electronic-compass system can be employed in different modes, such as single-shot, multishots, and MWD, in which data are sent to surface in real time through the mud-pulse telemetry system. The MWD acquires downhole information during drilling operations that can be used to make timely decisions about the drilling process. The magnetic survey information is obtained with an electronic compass, but, unlike previous systems that stored the information, the MWD encodes the survey data in mud pulses that are sent up and decoded at the surface. The real-time survey information enables the drillers to make directional-drilling decisions while drilling. The sensors used in MWD tools are the same design as those used in electronic magnetic single-shot and multishots (i.e., gravity accelerometers and fluxgate magnetometers).



The completion equipment consists of downhole tools related to the tubing string. These items include: packers, seal assemblies, flow couplings, blast joints, and landing nipples. They are dependent primarily on tubing size and fluid content. Packers. The packer is designed to divert formation fluids into the production tubing. It is selected according to production-casing size, bore size requirements, tensile loading, and seal assembly type. In addition, H2S-serviceable packers contain seals that are approximately 100 times more costly than the standard rubbers. Packers - Inflatable packers are sometimes used to isolate a specific section of the wellbore for injection tests, fluid sampling, or other diagnostics. In general, this means that some kind of logging or sampling tool must be run through the packer into the zone below it, and the size of this tool will determine the minimum size of the packer and thus the hole.


Liner Hanger

A liner hanger is a device used in oil fields to hang liners within an oil well. So that oil can be pumped out of the well, a liner is used to create a vacuum. Liners can be installed mechanically or hydraulically, depending on the well. Setting a hanger is a crucial part of the process of "completion" which is the preparation of an oil well for drilling. Mechanical liner hangers are designed to be used on vertical, onshore wells. These are durable machines capable of providing light to medium density liners. A mechanical liner hanger is lowered into a well and when it reaches its intended depth it attaches itself to the well’s cones, which are components that keep oil and dangerous gasses from escaping. Through using its mechanical parts, the liner hanger attaches itself to the cone, allowing for oil to pass through to the surface. For offshore oil wells, onshore wells that are extremely deep, or high pressure high temperature (HPHT) wells, hydraulic liner hangers are used. These hang heavy liners and can be used horizontally as well as vertically. If the well is to be cemented, it is possible for the lining and cementing to be done simultaneously with hydraulic liner hangers, as this improves the stability of both the cement and the liner. As the name suggests, when the hydraulic liner hanger reaches its intended depth it attaches the liner to the cone by using powerful hydraulics.

Liner Hanger

Logging Unit

Formation-evaluation services, or well logging, are done on every well. The service may include formation evaluation, casing and cement logging, and hole-inclination surveys. Formation Testing. Wireline formation testing is an economical method of obtaining reliable formation information. The repeating formation tester is a device that takes samples of pressure and fluids from a zone of interest. It should be included in the cost estimate for every exploratory well. Completion Logging. Various types of production logs can be run on the well if it is completed. These logs are generally run before perforation so that pre- and post-production formation evaluations can be made. Because production logging is a complex subject, the appropriate log suite must be developed jointly by the drilling and production engineers.

  • Truck Mounted: Finally, the extensive logging and testing that usually follows drilling is critical in verifying the value of the reservoir and in making decisions about further development. Surface measurements are often ambiguous because there is more than one downhole condition that can produce the same readings at the surface, so downhole measurements are valuable in resolving this discrepancy. Downhole measurements can be made in several different ways: A sensor package can be lowered into the hole on an electrically-conducting cable (wireline), sending back signals in real time as it traverses the wellbore. This method usually requires a specialized wireline truck operated by a logging service company (i.e., this method is relatively expensive.


  • Skid Mounted: A logging tool with on-board memory can be lowered into the hole on an ordinary cable (slickline), taking readings as it traverses the wellbore, and then brought back to surface where data are downloaded. If real-time data are not required, this method tends to be cheaper and more convenient, because the memory tool can be operated by the rig crew on the rig’s hoisting equipment. Power’s skid mounted logging units are built to customer specifications. The function normally found on a land based logging truck are replicated in this offshore skid unit. These units are self contained except for electric power which is supplied by the rig. They can be stored, transported and operated as a single self-contained unit.The operator cab provides winch controls, measurement equipment and ample space for rack mounted logging computers. It is climate controlled and provides safety features such a steel mesh protective barrier between the cab and the winch. The skid can be lifted as a single unit or if necessary broken into 2 pieces, the unit and the drum, to accommodate lifting limitations on smaller rigs.



Different kind of Valve

  • Ball: A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. The sphere has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. Ball valves are used extensively in industrial applications because they are very versatile, supporting pressures up to 1000 bar and temperatures up to 482°F (250°C). Sizes typically range from 0.2 to 11.81 inches (0.5 cm to 30 cm). They are easy to repair and operate.


  • Gate: The gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restric¬tion is desired. Because of their ability to cut through liquids, gate valves are often used in the petroleum industry.


  • Butterfly: butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow. The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. Operation is similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for quick shut off. A butterfly valve is from a family of valves called quarter-turn valves. The "butterfly" is a metal disc mounted on a rod. When the valve is closed, the disc is turned so that it completely blocks off the passageway.


  • Globe: A globe valve different from ball valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body. Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape with the two halves of the body being separated by an internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat onto which a movable plug can be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve.


  • Check Valve: A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction.Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.

Check Valve

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